Switzerland is identified as one of the most advanced nations globally. According to the year 2019, it was listed as the most innovative country in the world in the Global Innovation Index. It is also known as the home of global research, a region where scientists in worldwide accredited institutions are involved, particularly in groundbreaking studies and experiments (Arvanitis, Loukis & Diamantopoulou 2016). Since the country does not have any natural resources in disposal, science and technology have always been their Centre of exploration to improve its economy. Both the government and the private sector come in handy when it comes to promoting technology in Switzerland.
The top universities in Switzerland have garnered a global reputation internationally due to the critical roles in enhancing innovation, particularly within the innovation sector. The most notable universities in Switzerland are the University of Basel, Basel, University of Bern, Berne, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, University of Geneva, Geneva, and University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, among others (Arvanitis, Loukis & Diamantopoulou 2016). Some of Switzerland’s critical areas explored technologically are medical, architectural, medical, and robotics. There is also intense research in Switzerland that aims to improve elderly individuals’ lives or, somewhat, population (Arvanitis, Loukis & Diamantopoulou 2016).
The recent past has seen many investments in the information communication and technology (ICT) sector. Currently, Switzerland is identified as a global research Centre and has been noted as one of the countries with the maximum number of novel prize winners per capita globally. YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Tumblr are some of the top social media platforms used by the citizens in Switzerland (Porter et al. 2019).
Technological innovation is a fact that is very complex and multidimensional. Due to its complexity and diversity, it is very challenging to measure technological indicators directly. Usually, research and innovation indicators involve processes that incorporate numerous resources from differing sectors. Innovation is also a fact that encompasses different outputs that cannot be directly measured, especially from a single dimensioned scale. Technology indicators offer information from varied facades of the innovation process, which helps comprehend the spectacle better and help authorities formulate policies.
Arvanitis, Loukis & Diamantopoulou (2016) note that how innovation processes are comprehended has significantly impacted technological indicators. In Switzerland, science and technology have played a critical role in Switzerland’s economy because there are very few natural resources. The Swiss National Science Foundation, governed by the nation’s federal government, is one of the most vital institutes fostering technological and scientific research.
Evidence shows that the country spends 6% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) on education, while half of Switzerland’s higher education professors come from abroad. Moreover, imperative international research infrastructures such as the CERN are located in Switzerland. Their expenditure in research and developed has been recorded to be 3% of the GDP. Additionally, the researchers in Switzerland produce around 1.2% of all the internationally published scientific papers (Porter et al. 2019).
The majority of Switzerland’s studies are mainly carried out in research-intensive universities, private companies, and research institutions. Drawing from OECD statistics, the gross domestic expenditure on R&D is conducted by 24.17% by the Higher Education Sector. The business sector conducts around 73.50% of the total research, while the government sector conducts 0.74% (Porter et al. 2019). On the other hand, the private and nonprofit sector research amounts to 1.6% of the total study. From these statistics, it is apparent that the Swiss business enterprise sector is the one that carries out most of the research followed by the GERD (Arvanitis, Loukis & Diamantopoulou 2016).