The term anxiety refers to the body’s expected response to stress. Usually, it exhibits fear regarding something that has not yet happened (Leichsenring & Leweke 2017). For instance, many students feel anxiety sometime before having an exam. However, there are situations when anxiety escalates and cannot be categorized under normal anxiety. Under such circumstances, there are possibilities that an individual might be experiencing an anxiety disorder. A significant difference between normal anxiety and anxiety disorder is the duration of the condition (Leichsenring & Leweke 2017). For normal anxiety, it only lasts for a short period, possibly hours to days. However, in anxiety disorder cases, the condition can last for more than two weeks (Leichsenring & Leweke 2017).
Deducing from the case provided, Susan’s reaction in situations where she is supposed to speak is normal and cannot be grouped as an anxiety disorder. She does not have a psychological disorder because it is normal for people to feel anxious when tasked with engaging in public speaking. The habit of preparing meticulously and rehearsing multiple times is a good act since it helps reduce anxiety, which is perfectly normal for anyone in such a situation. Another factor that makes it confident that Susan does not have any anxiety disorder is because a stressor usually causes normal anxiety. In contrast, anxiety disorder might arise even without a specific stressor. The case has indicated that Susan always feels anxious when she is supposed to speak; therefore, a particular stressor is identified to relate to her anxiety condition. Also, anxiety disorder always manifests itself in a challenging manner to manage and, at many times, falls out of control (Leichsenring & Leweke 2017). However, Susan is still in control, which is denoted by her intense practice. An anxiety disorder is also accompanied by other symptoms that have not been mentioned in Susan’s case. Some of the common symptoms associated with an anxiety disorder are sweating, headache, nausea, dizziness, and trembling (Leichsenring & Leweke 2017).
The two primary criteria used to determine Susan’s condition are the duration of the anxiety and the impact that the disease has on her everyday life. The case has illustrated that her anxiety is short-lived and does not affect her daily life. Therefore, these are enough proofs that she is just experiencing normal anxiety. If she was undergoing an anxiety disorder, there are high chances that the condition would have lasted for more extended periods and would have had significant adverse effects on her daily routine and life in general (Leichsenring & Leweke 2017).
Much focus on an individual’s childhood as the primary cause of emotional challenges is vital since it helps to curb any present emotional issues which might escalate and worsen when they grow (Copeland et al. 2018). Usually, when a condition is identified at an early stage, it is possible to accord the victim the required help when the situation is still manageable. Children are very flexible to adapt to change, unlike adults; therefore, when they are monitored and guided correctly, there is a chance that there will be less emotional related challenges in the future.
Also, focusing on childhood to eliminate emotional problems is essential since it helps people eliminate hindering factors and enable them to focus on more critical immediate needs. Psychologists need to identify the root cause of a problem manifesting in an adult. It can be ineffective, trying to cure a condition when the actual cause is unknown. Therefore, it is imperative to examine an individual’s childhood upbringing just if the problem started when they were young. Sufficient literature denotes that people who talk about traumatic childhood experiences heal quickly from any psychological conditions, unlike those who opt to keep to themselves (Copeland et al. 2018).
On the other hand, a drawback of emphasizing childhood life as the primary root of emotional challenges might be misleading. There are high chances that much focus will be directed towards childhood while ignoring current issues or challenges that are not associated with an individual’s childhood. There are significant chances that there are moments when recent events trigger psychological conditions; however, since most of the psychological problems emanate from an unhappy or traumatic childhood, it might hinder people from tackling recent or current issues (Copeland et al. 2018). Moreover, focusing on childhood memories can make people blame games instead of finding solutions to their problems. Instead of finding answers, they blame either their parents, caregivers, or guardians for their misfortunes, which might not be the case.
Depression is a mental condition that affects an individual’s mood, resulting in persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest in things that used to be fun. It usually affects how people think, feel, and behave. It can also lead to different kinds of emotional and physical challenges. It is a common clinical illness. A good thing with depression is that it can be cured. To be diagnosed as a patient suffering from depression disorder, they have to display specific symptoms for not less than two weeks. Some of the common symptoms associated with depression disorder are; loss of interest in activities that used to be fun, sad for longer periods, loss of appetite, sleeping challenges, suicidal thoughts, and feelings of guilt and worthlessness (Cohen & DeRubeis 2018).
Prior depression diagnosis or treatment requires an approved health practitioner to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the patient. The assessment conducted is done to ascertain if specific symptoms are present. The evaluation can also examine medical and family history since there are cases whereby genetic factors of past health issues can influence depression. Cultural and environmental analysis is also done to ascertain whether an individual is suffering from depression (Cohen & DeRubeis, 2018).
In the provided case, I will recommend an antidepressant to help adjust the mood change. This recommendation is because brain chemistry mainly leads to depression cases and plays a role in the treatment. Therefore, using antidepressants will help balance the brain chemistry. The use of antidepressants is not harmful since it has been confirmed that it does not have any stimulating impact on people who are not depressed. Usually, antidepressants can improve the situation in less than two weeks (Cohen & DeRubeis, 2018). However, if there will be no improvement within the first two weeks of using antidepressants, I will seek appropriate medication for the family member. Electroconvulsive Therapy can also be a suitable treatment for the patient since it is useful for treating major depressive disorders. This will be the last option since it is an effective treatment for people who have not responded to other medications.
Cohen, Z. D., & DeRubeis, R. J. (2018). Treatment selection in depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14.
Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Hinesley, J., Chan, R. F., Aberg, K. A., Fairbank, J. A., … & Costello, E. J. (2018). Association of childhood trauma exposure with adult psychiatric disorders and functional outcomes. JAMA network open, 1(7), e184493-e184493.
Leichsenring, F., & Leweke, F. (2017). Social anxiety disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(23), 2255-2264.