Trees represent nonlinear data structures used for storing data within the database. A tree follows a hierarchical structure where each node comprises zero or more child nodes connected by the use of pointers. Also, there exists only one parent node shared by other nodes. Child nodes may consist of pointers connecting to the parent nodes.
Due to the existence of the pointer, it becomes possible to conduct reverse traversal within the tree starting from the child to parent. A heap is a special data structure implementing trees but has its heap properties.
The selection of the method of retrieving data in a faster and efficient manner depends on the time required to return the results of a search. There exist two methods of searching namely sequential and binary. The sequential follows a special procedure where search includes examining every element of data structures until a match is found.
Consideration of the worst-case time is important within search algorithms as it determines the performance of the search method selected. On the other hand, binary searches become applicable where the storage of data structures occurs in sorted order. The analysis of the search starts by selecting the middle element then evaluating were to continue with the search if there was no immediate match by examining the upper or lower half of the data structure.
One of the best methods of solving problems within binary trees includes recursion as it is effective even when the number of the objects is unknown in the tree and where there is no well-defined endpoint. The importance of recursion is that it guarantees to traverse each node even when the amount of code is very small.