Discuss your opinion: Do you agree with the statement that the jobs offered with contract are having more benefits than the permanent jobs
Both contract and permanent jobs have their advantages and disadvantages. However, contract jobs offered with contracts have many benefits compared to permanent jobs. Research shows that many skilled industry professionals aspire to get contact work for certain reasons. One of the reasons many skilled industry professionals prefer contract work is that it generally has a better pay than permanent work. If a permanent employee and a contractor are tasked a duty and are paid £50k per year, then a contractor is most likely to get around £5k more annually (Freches, 2017, pg 5).
Apart from contract work having better pay, another advantage is that the commissioned individual gets to be their own boss. Many times, working under someone can be very challenging due to differences in opinions or even modes of operation. Therefore, when a person works as a contractor, they have the liberty to prepare their time frames and make decisions that suit them (Freches, 2017, pg 7). Also, someone who is employed on a contract has the liberty of choosing the time to take a break as long as the contract is over. On the contrary, a person who is employed on a permanent basis will have to abide by the employer’s guidelines and plan.
Moreover, contractors often work with different kinds of employers, which is beneficial. When working with different employers, one gets to do new work that might call for new skills. As a result, the contractor gains new skills every time he or she works on a different contract. This aspect does not happen when a professional is signed for a permanent job. There are high chances that a permanent job will involve doing one task over and again; thus, learning new skills is not possible (Freches, 2017, pg 10). Therefore, I agree with the statement, “Jobs offered with contract have more benefits than permanent jobs.”
Elaborate recent developments in the field of fire resistance testing for interior and exterior building materials
There are many developments within the fire resistance test field, particularly for interior and exterior building materials that have taken place in the recent past. One of the developments is additional policies to improve operations within the sector. Based on a report provided by the directorate general of civil defense buildings fire prevention and protection requirements, there are new regulations that have been put in place by Ministers of the interior in the Gulf Cooperative Council Countries to guide the sector. (…) Notably, halogen-based fire inhibitors have been improved and currently have the best features for fire resistance among the different kinds of fire retardants. Also, organic and inorganic fillers in epoxy matrix continue to gain wide acceptance within the field.
Furthermore, there are ongoing trends in fire protection studies that aim to attain performance-based design and rationalizing fire protection engineering instead of prescriptive necessities. There are also studies in place seeking to find sufficient and appropriate data for standard fire resistance methods since there is a scarcity of data in the sector (Kausar et al. 2016, pg 1513). New methodologies are being created to ensure that fire resistance testing in interior and exterior building materials is effective. Currently, there are numerous organizations which are conducting experiments to create the appropriate design method infrastructure. For instance, the society of fire protection engineers has a committee in place working toward developing mechanisms that will aid in determining the correct design fire exposure. They are also working to come up with a standard on thermal transfer quota of the design process. On the other hand, The National Fire Protection Association is working to develop a standard that will be used for fire loads in structural fire protection design (Craig et al. 2007, pg 21).
Discuss the major features of modern contracts and why they are many of the original rules of contract law impractical in modern times?
In law, the term contract refers to the agreement between two or more parties that establishes a mutual understanding that is legally enforceable. A contract should have certain elements that make them valid. Some of these elements are offer, acceptance, and consideration, the will to establish a legal relation, certainty and capacity. The lack of these agreements in any contract will deem the agreement invalid. For a contract to be legally enforceable, it has to offer an expression on the offeror’s willingness to enter an agreement (Jimenez, 2017, pg 12). Another feature is acceptance. For a contract to be enforceable by the law, it is required that the parties make an unconditional acceptance. The consideration feature is the bargain component that is involved when coming into terms regarding a contract. Also, the parties ought to have the will or rather the intention to come up with a legally binding contract and not just any kind of agreement that is not accepted as legally enforceable. Capacity in contract law entails the presumed capability of the individual or party taking part in a contract to comprehend the terms, consequences, and rules of entering the contract. There are people who lack the capacity to sign a binding contract such as minors and mentally ill individuals (Jimenez, 2017, pg 13).
Lastly, the terms of any contract ought to be vividly sufficient. Also, it has to be precise for it to be considered enforceable. The majority of the original rules of contract law are impractical within contemporary society due to the changing trends in different kinds of operations. There are new operations that do not fit within the original rules of contract law, therefore, using the original rules will be ineffective. For this reason, they have been rendered impractical ((Jimenez, 2017, pg 18).
Discuss the salient features of Chapters Two, Three and Eight of Building Fire Prevention and Protection requirements (BFPPR), Document no. 77/2002 by Directorate General of Civil Defense.
Chapter two main covered the general necessities for firefighting and warning systems. The chapter provides details core features that buildings must have in order to protect the occupants from fire hazards. This has been majorly tackled from the perspective of having effective and sufficient warning systems. It is asserted within the chapter that it’s important for all buildings inclusive of the different partitions to be designed in a manner that firefighting is made easy. The ease of preventing and eliminating fire can be attained through having an appropriate design. Therefore, it is imperative for building owners first to seek permission or rather permit from the civil defense before commencing the construction process. The chapter also has information on maintaining buildings to ensure that the warning systems are working properly at all times (Directorate General of Civil Defense, 2002, pg 77).
The third chapter provides the guidelines required for the provision of escape or, rather, emergency exists. The chapter’s specific information is the requirements for having the best escape channels in case of a fire outbreak. Required necessities for designing buildings that make it easy to escape during a fire outbreak are detailed. Some of the key information provided comprises the movement distance, the capacity of people, and the height of the different building sections. In design, the required materials have been highlight (Directorate General of Civil Defense, 2002, pg 112).
The fourth chapter documents the requirements needed for preventing and protecting fire in residential buildings. The key consideration highlighted are the buildings’ sections and their use and the varied kinds of fire spread; horizontal, vertical, or external. There is a description of the construction requirements. There are measurements stated for staircases within residential buildings. Also, the chapter highlights the different requirements for different kinds of exits and the final exit. Engineering services and warning and firefighting equipment have also been reiterated (Directorate General of Civil Defense, 2002, pg 187).
Write a summary of the Chapter Seven and Eight of NFPA 101® Life Safety Code by National Fire Protection Association
Chapter seven provides the guidelines that all the new and existing buildings ought to comply with in relation to Egress’s means. The requirements for sections of exit are documented. For instance, it is asserted that the corridors that are to be used for exit during a fire exit should not have more than 30 people. In the case whereby that there are more than 30 people, then it should be separated from the other parts of the building. The walls of such buildings should also be designed in a manner that the walls do not have less than an hour fire-resistance rating. There are also documentation for how interior finish should be made in exit enclosures. There is also a guideline for how the walking surfaces should be made in addition to how furnishing and decoration ought to be designed in these sections. Other sections of the building, such as doors, door openings, locking systems, and arrangements have been documented within the chapter (National Fire Protection Association, 2020, pg 55).
On the other hand, chapter 8 of NFPA details the guidelines that ought to be abided by in relation to fire protection features. The documented guidelines apply to new construction and existing buildings. It is a requirement for all buildings to have an automatic sprinkler system that will aid in the case of a fire outbreak. All the buildings need to meet the minimum requirements of construction before permission can be granted. Guidelines relating to buildings that have extensions are also provided with a key consideration of 2-hour, particularly for vertically aligned buildings. This is a guideline drawn from NFPA 221. It is also advised that all buildings be divided into compartments to prevent the spread of fire and limit smoke movement. Lastly, there is information on the requirements for materials used to create fire-resistance rated elements and assemblies (National Fire Protection Association, 2020, pg 96).
What do you think: how the law is operating, are there any fire cases that give concern over how the law is operating?
After reviewing the report provided by the directorate general of civil defense buildings fire prevention and protection requirement and the National Fire Protection Association codes, it is apparent that the law is very strict in matters pertaining to fire outbreaks. The guidelines are very specific, detailing every measure that ought to be kept to prevent fire cases from buildings. The guidelines are very specific, an essential factor to prevent any type of fire since many fire cases arise from accidents and not planned. Therefore, it is appropriate to assert that the law is working appropriately. However, despite the fact that the law is very explicit in all components that ought to be adhered to before permission for building construction is given, implementation continues to be a big challenge, especially with the rising cases of corruption. In regard to how the law has been formulated, it is clear that it has been created to work effectively and efficiently. However, what lacks is the means of making the different concerns highlighted feasible considering factors such as economy, corruption, and monitoring. There have been many cases whereby buildings are constructed only to find later that they do not have all the necessary requirements as per the National Fire Protection Association guidelines of new construction and existing buildings. Therefore, the cases of corruption whereby permit is given to individuals who do not want to meet the minimum requirements of building construction are the greatest concern that should be addressed. There are high chances that eliminating corruption within the field of building construction will reduce if not eliminate, the many cases of fire outbreaks that happen often. In this way, many lives and properties will be saved.
Craig, B., & Jesse B., Nestor I. and Brian L. 2007. Fire Resistance Testing for Performance-based Fire Design of Buildings. Final Report.
Directorate General of Civil Defense 2002. Fire Prevention and Protection requirements (BFPPR). Document no. 77/2002.
Freches, M.H.F., 2017. Flexible work arrangements in small and medium enterprises: incidence, motivations, advantages and disadvantages (Doctoral dissertation).
Jimenez, M. J. 2017. Contract law: a case & problem-based approach. New York : Wolters Kluwer.
Kausar, A., Rafique, I., Anwar, Z. and Muhammad, B., 2016. Recent developments in different types of flame retardants and effect on fire retardancy of epoxy composite. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 55(14), pp.1512-1535.
National Fire Protection Association. 2020. Life safety code handbook: with the complete text of the [current] edition of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. Quincy, MA, National Fire Protection Association.