Ashley Davis patho objectives 5,6,7,20
Pathophysiology Objective Questions Chp. 5
1.Explain the role of normal defenses in preventing disease- Nonspecific mechanisms are the body's primary defense against disease. These mechanisms include anatomical barriers to invading pathogens, physiological deterrents to pathogens, and the presence of normal flora.
When these nonspecific mechanisms fail, the body initiates a second, specific line of defense. This specific immune response enables the body to target particular pathogens and pathogen- infected cells for destruction. When a host encounters an antigen that triggers a specific immune response for the second or later time, the memory lymphocytes recognize it and quickly begin growing and dividing, as well as producing high levels of lymphokines and antibodies. A vaccine is either a killed or weakened (attenuated) strain of a particular pathogen, or a solution containing critical antigens from the pathogen. The body's immune system will respond to these vaccines as if they contain the actual pathogen, even though the vaccine is not capable of causing the disease
2. Describe how changes in capillary exchange affect the tissues and the blood components-
It affects the circulation of blood to the tissues
3. Compare normal capillary exchange with exchange during the inflammatory response- Increased capillary permeability allow increased flow of water, protein, electrolytes to form exudate. Vasodilation and increased capillary permeability make up the vascular response to injury. Increased capillary permeability increases and allows plasma proteins to move into
the interstitial space along with more fluid
4. Describe the local and systemic effects of inflammation- Local effects include redness, swelling, pain, loss of function while system effects include malaise, fatigue, headache, fever
5. Explain the effects of chronic inflammation- it can have serious effects on your cellular health, and has been linked to degenerative diseases including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's and many others
6. Discuss the modes of treatment of inflammation- Drugs can be used to treat inflammation like aspirin etc. First aid measures are essential as well this includes rest, ice, compression, and
elevation. Other methods like splinting, mild to moderate exercise, compression, rest, fluids and nutrition can help treat inflammation
7. Describe the types of healing and the disadvantages of each- The types of healing are resolution, regeneration, and replacement. Disadvantages of these types of healing would be when a large or deep area of tissue occurs making the healing time much longer
8. List the factors, including a specific example for each, that hasten healing- Age
Adequate Nutrition, Lack of Anemia, Hgb levels normal Circulation not impaired, Clean wound, No infection or recurrent trauma to area
9. Identify the classifications of burns and describe the effects of burns- Partial thickness burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis. First-degree burns damage the epidermis and may involve the upper dermis. They are red and painful but heal readily without issues. Deep partial thickness (second degree burns) involve the destruction of epidermis and part of dermis. These burns easily become infected. Full thickness burns (third or fourth degree) destruct all skin layers and often underlying tissues as well.
10. Describe the possible complications occurring in the first few days after a burn- Infection is a major complication when it comes to burns, shock and respiratory issues can also occur from burns
11. Explain three reasons why the healing of a burn may be difficult- healing of a burn may be difficult due to opportunistic bacteria coming in and causing an infection. Also low hemoglobin in the blood develops from destroyed or damaged cells by injury. Lastly, healing of a wound may be difficult due metabolic needs and if a patient isn’t getting the right nutrition
Pathophysiology Objective Questions Chp. 6
1. Describe the basic characteristics of bacteria, viruses, chlamydiae, rickettsiae, mycoplasmas, fungi, prions, and helminthes- The basic characteristics of microorganisms include the fact that there are pathogenic microorganisms and non pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic will be the disease causing microbe and non pathogenic do not cause disease and a often beneficial to the subject.
2. Discuss the locations, advantages, and disadvantages of resident (normal) flora- Locations of normal flora include the skin, nasal cavity, mouth, gut, vagina and urethra. Advantages are the fact that the protect the body from harmful bacteria and help regulate the body. The disadvantage of normal flora is that if they were to move to a different location in the body from their original spot, they can become pathogenic and cause disease.
3. Describe the modes of transmission of microbes- Mode of transmission for microbes include person to person, water, food, insects, and fomites
4. Describe the factors determining host resistance- Factors include age, pregnancy, genetic susceptibility immunodeficiency, malnutrition, chronic disease, severe physical or emotional stress, inflammation or trauma, impaired inflammatory response
5. Explain the factors contributing to pathogenicity and virulence of microbes- The pathogenicity would be if a non pathogen became pathogenic. Factors contributing would be motility or enzymes, toxins adherence to tissue by pili, fimbriae, specific receptor sites, and ability to avoid host defenses.
6. Discuss methods of preventing and controlling infection- In order to prevent and control infections, a major factor would be hand washing, sterilizing equipment and using antiseptics to clean the skin and tissues correctly and using disinfectants for surfaces and objects.
7. Describe the stages in the development and course of an infection- The stages of an infection would be the incubation period in which it’s the time between entry of an organism and the appearance of clinical signs. The prodromal stage is when you experience fatigue, loss of appetite and headache.
8. Describe typical, local, and systemic signs of infection- Local signs of infection would be redness, swelling, warmth, pain and eventually loss of function. Systemic signs would be fever, fatigue and weakness, headache and nausea.
9. State the common diagnostic tests for infection and the purpose of each- Common diagnostic tests include culture and staining and this is used to test for drug sensitivity, then there are blood tests and this is to test for the variation in the numbers of leukocytes. Then there are immunologic testing of body fluids and this is to identify antigens
10. Describe the mechanisms of action of common antimicrobial drugs- Mechanism of action for antibiotics include cell wall synthesis, increasing permeability of bacterial cell membrane, protein synthesis and cell reproduction and interference with synthesis of essential metabolites
11. Explain the basic guidelines for use of antimicrobial drugs- Basic guidelines for antimicrobial drug use includes taking the medication as directed, taking the medication until it is completely used or until a new drug is prescribed, not using drugs prescribed for other clients or other infections, and using multidrug therapy just in case drug resistance is known to occur with infection.
12. Describe the respiratory infection influenza, including the cause, transmission, immunization, incidence, manifestations, and possible complications- Influenza is a respiratory infection caused by a virus that frequently mutates, preventing long term immunity by vaccination or experiencing the infection. Influenza viruses are spread from person to person primarily through large-particle respiratory droplet transmission, Manifestations include Fever over 100 F, Aching muscles, especially in your back, arms and legs, Chills and sweats, dry persistent cough etc. Possible complications. Pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus and ear infections are examples of complications from flu
Pathophysiology Objective Questions Chp. 7
11. Describe the normal immune response- The immune system is designed to defend the body against foreign or dangerous invaders. Any substances that are identified as non- self, particularly if they are perceived as dangerous
Stimulate an immune response in the body. Such substances are called antigens.
2. List the components of the immune system and the purpose of each- The components of the immune system include organs which has the primary bone marrow and thymus and then the secondary organs which include the spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphoid tissue. Then there are the cells which include the white blood cells to fight off pathogens or foreign substances. Lastly, there are the molecules which have the antibodies, complement system and chemical mediators.
3. Explain the four methods of acquiring immunity- The four ways include Nonspecific immunity which includes barriers, fluids, inflammatory reaction, phagocytosis, and antimicrobial substances. Then there is specific immunity by means of immune response either being humoral or cellular. Last but not least there is Acquired immunity which occurs in a natural or artificial way and can be active or passive.
4. Discuss tissue transplant rejection and how it is treated- Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient’s immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue. Transplant rejection can be lessened by determining the molecular similitude between donor and recipient and by use of immunosuppressant drugs after transplant
5. Describe the mechanism and clinical effects of each of the four types of hypersensitivity reactions- Type 1 (Anaphylactic reaction)- IgE is bound to the mast cells and it releases histamine and chemical mediators when a reaction occurs. Type 2 Cytotoxic) reaction is when the IgG or IgM reacts with the antigen on the cell. This active’s a complement reaction. Type 3 (Immune Complex) reaction is when antigen-antibody complex deposits in the tissue and the complement is activated. Type 4 (Cell mediated) reaction is when the antigen binds to T- lymphocytes and is sensitized this results in lymphocytes releasing lymphokines.
6. Explain the effects of anaphylaxis- Sometimes, when you come into contact with that antigen again, your immune system overreacts, blowing the event out of proportion. Far too much histamine and other inflammatory chemicals are quickly released into your system. Inflammation in the respiratory system can cause the bronchial tissues to swell. Symptoms include shortness of breath and difficulty breathing
One of the more obvious signs of anaphylaxis can be seen on the skin. It may start out as itchiness and redness, or just a mild warming of the skin. It can progress to welts, or hives that hurt when you touch them. In anaphylaxis, small blood vessels (capillaries) begin to leak blood into your tissues. This can cause a sudden and dramatic drop in blood pressure. Other symptoms include rapid or weak pulse and heart palpitations. Even if your reaction is usually mild, food allergies put you at increased risk of developing anaphylaxis. Digestive system symptoms include bloating, cramps, and abdominal pain. Even before the first physical symptoms occur, some people have a weird feeling – a sense that something bad is about to happen. Others describe a metallic taste in their mouth. Inflammation in the central nervous system can make you lightheaded or dizzy
7. Discuss the mechanism of autoimmune disorders- Autoimmune diseases classified by the mechanism of tissue damage. Autoimmune diseases can be grouped in the same way as hypersensitivity reactions, according to the type of immune response and the mechanism by which it damages tissues. Autoimmune disease occurs when a specific adaptive immune response is mounted against self antigens. The normal consequence of an adaptive immune response against a foreign antigen is the clearance of the antigen from the body
8. Describe the disorder systemic lupus erythematosus, its pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and treatment- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that effects a number of organ systems (mainly the kidneys). Manifestation will include a characteristic facial butterfly rash and this disorder primarily affects young women especially African American. Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans. You can also have painful joints, inflammation in the pleural membranes and chest pain. While there’s no cure for lupus, current treatments focus on improving quality of life through controlling symptoms and minimizing flare-ups. This begins with lifestyle modifications, including sun protection and diet. Further disease management includes medications, such as anti-inflammatories and steroids
9. Explain the causes and effects of immunodeficiency- Causes of immunodeficiency include infections, splenectomy, malnutrition, liver disease, immunosuppressant drugs, radiation, and chemotherapy. The effects of immunodeficiency can lead to infection or cancer.
10. Describe the cause, modes of transmission, and implications for health professionals of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- AIDS is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the HIV destroys helper T-cells- CD4 lymphocytes causing loss of immune response and increased susceptibility to secondary infections and cancer. Implications of an HCP is the use of antivirals to suppress the development of the virus. Modes of transmission of HIV can be direct contact with bodily fluids, blood contaminated milk etc.
11. Describe the course, effects, and complications of HIV-AIDS- The initial infection usually comes in 3-6 weeks with mild nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Then there is a latent period tha may last many years in which the person is asymptomatic or lymphadenopathy may be present helper- T4 cell count decreases and weaker immune response. Gradually move into active infection. Which then leads into Acute AIDS in which there is a very low T4 cell count and one is more susceptible to opportunistic infections, cancers, wasting syndrome and CNS involvement.
Pathophysiology Objective Questions Chp. 20
1. Distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, their characteristics, and terminology- Benign Tumors are usually differentiated cells that reproduce at a a higher rate than normal, they are also encapsulated. Tissue damage is a result of compression of adjacent structures which can be life-threatening in the brain. Malignant Tumors are undifferentiated, non functioning cells. They reproduce rapidly, and have abnormal mitotic figures. They infiltrate and spread to surrounding tissue and spread to distant sites. Benign tumors will slowly expand while malignant tumors have an irregular shape and surface to them.
2. List the warning signs of cancer- The warning signs of cancer include unusual bleeding or discharge anywhere in the body. Change in bowel or bladder habits, a change in a wart or mole, having a sore that does not heal, unexplained weight loss, anemia or low hemoglobin and persistent fatigue and cough without reason. Lastly, a solid lump, often painless, in the breast or testes or anywhere in the body can be a sure warning sign of cancer
3. Explain the local and systemic effects of cancer- Local effects of cancer include Pain, Obstruction, and tissue necrosis. Systemic Effects include Weight loss, anemia, severe fatigue, infection, bleeding and paraneoplastic syndrome.
4. Describe common diagnostic tests- Common diagnostic tests include a routine screening which is essential for early detection and a following treatment is used to detect any further tumors. Self examination is another common diagnostic test especially for detecting breast cancer. Blood tests are also used. Other diagnostic tests will be MRI, CT scan, ultrasound and radiographic scan. This is to visualize the changes that are going on in the tissues or organs. Cytologic tests will include obtaining a biopsy or cell sample to determine the degree of differentiation and tumor type.
5. Discuss the spread of malignant tumors by invasion, metastasis, and seeding and relate them to the staging of cancer- Malignant tumor will invade by locally spreading, having tumor cells grow into adjacent tissues. Metastasis spreads to distant tissues via the blood or lymph or other body fluids. Seeding spreads the cancer cells in the body cavity/fluids
6. Describe the stages involved in carcinogenesis, specific risk factors, and possible preventive measures- carcinogenesis is a process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells and can be caused by environmental effects, change in gene expression, infection. Specific risk factors would be age, diet, hormones, chronic irritation, radiation or chemicals. Preventative measures that can possibly work would be to have regular medical and dental examinations, limit UV light exposure and tanning, doing self examination regularly and creating a better diet. Increase fiber and reduce fat content and having 5-10 servings of fruits and vegetables
7. Explain the host defenses against cancer- The immune system may regard these new antigens, called tumor antigens, as foreign and may be able to contain or destroy the cancerous cells. This is the mechanism by which the body destroys abnormal cells and is often able to destroy cancerous cells before they can become established. However, even a fully functioning immune system cannot always destroy all cancerous cells. And, once cancerous cells reproduce and form a large mass of cancerous cells (a cancerous tumor), the body’s immune system may be overwhelmed. Tumor antigens have been identified in several types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. Vaccines made from tumor antigens are being used to treat prostate cancer and may be able to prevent or treat other types of cancer by stimulating the immune system. Such vaccines are an area of great research interest.
8. Discuss possible treatment measures, including radiation and chemotherapy, as well as nutrition -Possible treatment can include radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy or it can be a combination of all treatments. Nutrition may be hard to incorporate because of the change in sensation sore mouth or loss of teeth and pain.
9. Describe and differentiate among three examples of malignant tumors: skin cancer, ovarian cancer, and brain cancer- Skin Cancer is having and abnormal growth of skin cells and can be differentiated into three type. Basal cell cancer, Melanoma the most serious type o cancer and squamous cell skin carcinoma. Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. Women have two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries each about the size of an almond produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. Brain cancer is a disease of the brain in which cancer cells (Malignant). arise in the brain tissue. Cancer cells grow to form a mass of cancer tissue (tumor) that interferes with brain functions such as muscle control, sensation, memory, and other normal body functions.