TEST BANK FOR
PSYCHOLOGY OF DIVERSITY, 4TH
EDITION, BRUCE E. BLAINE
Test Bank for Understanding the Psychology of
Diversity, 4th Edition, Bruce E. Blaine, Kimberly J.
1. Diversity: the presence of a difference.
2. Melting Pot: ideal that involves the acceptance of others'
differences if they are otherwise devoted to the majority group
values and goals.
(such as hard-working citizens and being responsible)
3. Multiculturalism: beliefs or ideals that promote recognition,
appreciation, celebration, and preservation of social difference.
4. Color-Blindness: considering people strictly as individuals and
ignoring/de-emphasizing their racial or ethnic group membership.
5. Social Categorization: thinking about people primarily as
members of social groups rather than as individuals.
6. Primary Social Categories: notice first and fastest when we think
of other people.
(sex, race, & age.)
7. Automatic Categorization: what we notice about people (age,
sex, & race) that is spontaneous, reflexive, and uncontrollable.
8. Solo Status: Ex. being the only female in a group of males will get
you more recognition and attention than being one of the males.
9. In-Group: social groups which we are in and a part of.
10. Out-Group: social groups that we are not in and not a part of.
11. Stereotype: set of beliefs about the members of a social group and
usually consists of personality traits, behaviors, and motives.
12. Just World Belief: the belief in a world where people generally get
what they deserve.
13. Illusory Correlation: remembering the unusual individual in a
14. Cultural Stereotypes: collective views and beliefs about cultural
15. Sub-Typing: categorizing people into a more narrow stereotype
instead of the normal, more broad ones.
16. Out-Group Homogeneity Effect: the idea that we tend to think
people who are part of an out-group are all alike, and we the people
of the in-group are a collective of unique individuals.
17. Ultimate Attribution Error: when explaining the behavior of the
out-group individuals, we tend to cite inner causes. when it is the
behavior of the in-group, we tend to cite circumstantial or situational
Ex. He doesn't have a job because he is lazy.
I don't have a job because immigrants are taking all the jobs.
18. Hypodescent: identifying mixed-race people by their socially
subordinate parent group.
Ex. Asian-White or Black-White
19. Model Minority: the idea that Asian Americans are better at
20 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: occurs when our expectations for an
individual's personality or behavior cause that person to act in ways
that confirm our expectations for them.
21. Perceptual Bias: tendency not to notice and more easily forget
stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict prior beliefs.
Ex. A teacher has a favorite student, so she ignores the student's
22. Synergistic Accumulation: when incorrect/inaccurate beliefs
about behavior accumulate, a more potent force for evoking the
expected is formed.
Ex. Parents overestimated their teen's drinking. The teens showed
a higher frequency of drinking in response to their parents.
23. Linguistic Intergroup Bias: tendency to describe positive in-
group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than
negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors.
24. Negation Bias: the idea that something positive will have less
effect on someone's behavior and cognition than something
equally emotional and negative.
25. Stereotype Consistency Bias: tendency to refer to out-group
members in stereotypic terms.
26. Hate Speech: speech motivated, in whole or in part, by an
offender's bias against an individual's or group's race, religion,
ethnic/national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation.
27. Slurs/Ethnophaulisms: derogatory references to a particular
group or to some members of that group.
28. Accents: manners of pronunciation.
29. Prejudice: unjustified negative judgement of an individual based
on his or her social group identity.
30. Automatic Component of Prejudice: things we pick up from the
environment around us.
Ex. A child displays automatic prejudices because they are
recipients of their parents' attitudes and biases.
31. Controlled Component of Prejudice: one's own beliefs about
people from another group.
32. Justification-Suppression Model of Prejudice: prejudice
expressed when our inner feelings and impulses toward socially
different others are either insufficiently suppressed or sufficiently
Ex. We learn when it is acceptable and when it is not to show out
33. Right-Wing Authoritarianism: cluster of traits that values
adherence to societal norms and traditions, deference to
authorities who are seen as legitimate, and aggressiveness toward
people who are seen as challenging to those norms and
34 Social Dominance Orientation: personality profile that values
hierarchal ordering of groups in society and a firm maintenance of
35. Social Identity Theory: the idea that we look to social
categories and group memberships to help identify us. Our social
identity can be derived from groups assigned to us (race, age,
gender, & religion) or the ones acquired by us (clubs, teams, or
36. In-Group Bias: the tendency to evaluate people in one's own
group more favorably than people in a comparison out-group.
37. Backlash: social and economic punishments that we apply to
social deviants or people who are perceived to violate standards of
character or behavior allowed in a group.
38. Relative Deprivation: the experience of being deprived of
something to which one believes to be entitled.
39. Realistic Group Conflict: the idea that we evaluate others
that are socially different more negatively when we are in
competition with them more some valued resource.
40. Terror Management Theory: the realization that we are
insignificant creatures living in an unjust and often chaotic world
41. Modern Prejudice: any expression of prejudice that is subtle,
easily justified, and difficult to detect.
42. Symbolic Prejudice: open dislike and derogation of
individuals for reasons that are related not to group membership,
but to the values attributed tot those individuals.
43. Aversive Prejudice: holding negative feelings about out-
group members passively that were inherited from the surrounding
culture, while simultaneously affirming the values and cultivating a
self-image that is "fair-minded".
44. Secondary Prejudice: knowledge of a persons' suffering,
either current or past, increases rather than decreases prejudice
towards members of that group.
45. Hate Crime: when a person is criminally victimized because
of their race, religion, sexual orientation, or other aspect of their
46. Race: category of people who share the same skin color or
associated physical attributes.
47. Ethnicity: cluster of nonphysical cultural characteristics
(origin, language, or religion) or sharing of some form of cultural
48. Cultural Stereotype: set of traits and characteristics that
people associate with a particular social group.
49. Personal Social Beliefs: aspects of the cultural stereotype of
a group that they either believe or do not believe.
50 Colorism: stereotyping and discrimination based on skin color
that occurs within a group.
51. Stereotype Content Model: stereotypes about other groups
often reflect two content dimensions: competence and sociability.
52. Ambivalence: state of having mixed feelings or contradictory
ideas about something or someone.
53. Racism: behavior that discriminates against a people
because of their race. 54. Affirmative Action: enacted to improve
and promote equal opportunity in Blacks in college admissions and
in the work place.
55. Scapegoats: targets for displaced hostility.
Ex. Immigrants who cannot defend themselves against unfair
actions of the majority. 56. Obama Effect: the hope that electing
the first black president would help the strain of racial relations and
57. White Privilege: state of having advantage and opportunity
because of one's white skin color.
58. White Guilt: guilt felt about being white and feeling down about
their own skin color and group associated with it.
59. Sex: one's biological category.
60. Gender: traits and abilities associated with males and females.
61. Gender Stereotypes: beliefs about what is and isn't masculine and
62. Gender Bias: the tendency to value men and masculine traits over
women and feminine traits.
63. Hostile Sexism: regards women as inferior to men, assigns
women to traditional and subordinate roles, considers women as
sexual objects, and believes women are ultimately interested in
controlling and dominating men.
64. Benevolent Sexism: regards women as refined objects to be
idolized, protected, and cared for.
65. Gender Pay Gap: men earning more than women in the work
place performing the same job.
66. Income Entitlement: women feeling/being satisfied with lower pay
than a man for the same work.
67. Glass Ceiling: women being underrepresented in high-levels of
68. Maternal Wall: the collective impact of negative stereotyping and
behavior toward working mothers on their occupational
69. Gender Equity: allocating resources, programs, and decision
making fairly to both males and females without any discrimination
based on sex.