TEST BANK FOR BIOSTATISTICS
FOR THE BIOLOGICAL AND
HEALTH SCIENCES, 2ND
EDITION BY TRIOLA
Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics
Exam A
1) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
In studying the loggerhead turtle on Anna Maria Island, FL, scientists observe the average (mean)
number of hatchlings in all 253 nests.
A) Statistic
B) Parameter
Answer: B
2) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
A sample of Medtronic's rechargeable implanted spine stimulator batteries lasted an average (mean)
of nine years.
A) Statistic
B) Parameter
Answer: A
3) A ________ is the complete collection of all measurements or data, whereas, a ________ is a
subcollection of members selected from the complete collection.
A) sample; population
B) population; sample
C) sample; census
D) population; parameter
Answer: B
4) Determine whether the given values are from a discrete or a continuous data set.
People are asked to state how many times in the last month they visited their family doctor.
A) Discrete
B) Continuous
Answer: A
5) Determine whether the given values are from a discrete or a continuous data set.
The number of hatchlings from a sample of 45 bluebird nests is 135.
A) Discrete
B) Continuous
Answer: A
6) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Doctors measure the weights (in pounds) of preterm babies.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: D
7) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Ornithologists classify hummingbirds in the United States using 17 different species: Allen, Anna,
Berylline, Black-chinned, Blue-throated, Broad-billed, Broad- tailed, Buff-bellied, Calliope, Costa,
Lucifer, Magnificent, Ruby-throated, Rufous, Violet-crowned, White-eared, and Xantus.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: A
8) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
The income range of attendees at a research conference is gathered as upper, middle, and low levels.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: B
9) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Biologists measure the water temperature of the Merrimack River in New Hampshire.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: C
10) Identify the population.
A graduate student conducts a research study on undergraduate student smoking habits. She begins
with a survey to 500 randomly selected undergraduate students from 10 randomly selected U.S.
universities.
A) 500 undergraduate students from 10 U.S. universities
B) Undergraduate students from U.S. universities
C) Graduate students from U.S. universities
D) Smokers in the U.S.
Answer: B
11) Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment.
In a study of cold symptoms, the body temperatures of study participants were taken.
A) Observational study
B) Experiment
Answer: A
12) Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment.
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are randomly divided into four treatment groups
(the Tomatis Method, the Dore Method, the Brain Gym, and a control group) to compare differences
in focus and concentration.
A) Observational study
B) Experiment
Answer: B
13) Identify the type of observational study: cross-sectional, retrospective, or prospective.
A researcher from the department of defense is studying the psychology of trauma.
He plans to follow the children of service members who died in Afghanistan for the next 20 years.
A) Cross-sectional
B) Retrospective
C) Prospective
Answer: C
14) Identify the type of observational study: cross-sectional, retrospective, or prospective.
Scientists studying the migration habits of Aleutian geese collect data from reports measuring the
number of geese during "fly-offs" over the past 15 years.
A) Cross-sectional
B) Retrospective
C) Prospective
Answer: B
15) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
To conduct a study of hospital admittance procedures, a list of hospital locations according to county
is compiled. All the hospitals from 20 randomly selected counties are selected to be surveyed.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: D
16) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
A county water quality control officer obtains a list of all residential addresses in the county and
constructs a sample of homes to monitor by selecting every 200th home on the list.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: A
17) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
To obtain a sample of pregnant women, a researcher contacts her son's preschool teacher for a list of
names.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: B
18) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
Biologists divide the regions where Red foxes are found into the Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental,
Ethiopian, and the Australian region. They plan to follow 100 female foxes from each region to find
the average (mean) number of their offspring.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: C
19) To assess the variation in measurement (in cubic centimeters) of pre-filled syringes containing
experimental cervical cancer vaccine, manufacturers select every 200th syringe beginning at a random
moment. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample?
A) Yes; yes
B) Yes; no
C) No; yes
D) No; no
Answer: B
20) To monitor levels of the giardia parasite in the Rio Grande, aquatic biologists collect test tube
samples at various locations determined by a computer randomization program. Does this sampling
plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample?
A) Yes; yes
B) Yes; no
C) No; yes
D) No; no
Answer: A
Exam B
1) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
Nurses measure and calculate the average (mean) body temperature for all 187 patients at a regional
hospital.
A) Statistic
B) Parameter
Answer: B
2) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
A sample of Sidewinder, or Horned, Rattlesnakes is found to have an average (mean) length of 26
inches.
A) Statistic
B) Parameter
Answer: A
3) Determine whether the given values are from a discrete or a continuous data set.
A sample of male Bighorn sheep has an average (mean) horn base circumference of 43.2 centimeters.
A) Discrete
B) Continuous
Answer: B
4) Determine whether the given values are from a discrete or a continuous data set.
The Produce for Better Health Foundation manages the campaign advocating consumers to eat "5
Fruits and Vegetables A Day for Better Health" and gathers data on the number of servings of fruit
and vegetables that a sample of Americans ate yesterday
A) Discrete
B) Continuous
Answer: A
5) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Doctors measure the weights (in pounds) of pregnant women.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: D
6) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Scientists classify the four major deserts in North America using different regions: the Great Basin,
the Mojave, the Sonoran, and the Chihuahuan.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: A
7) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Physicians rank the severity of asthma using mild intermittent asthma, mild persistent asthma,
moderate persistent asthma, severe persistent asthma, or brittle asthma.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: B
8) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate.
Biologists monitor the air temperature of the Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
Answer: C
9) A ________ is the complete collection of all measurements or data, whereas, a ________ is a
subcollection of members selected from the complete collection.
A) population; sample
B) sample; population
C) sample; census
D) population; parameter
Answer: A
10) Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment.
In a study of the Bald Eagle population, the number of breeding pairs is counted.
A) Observational study
B) Experiment
Answer: A
11) Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment.
Patients with severe heart failure were randomly assigned to two treatment groups to compare death
and hospitalization rates. One group was treated with drug therapy while the other group was treated
with a combination of drugs and an electrical device.
A) Observational study
B) Experiment
Answer: B
12) Identify the type of observational study: cross-sectional, retrospective, or prospective.
Climatologists studying global warming record the average (mean) temperature of the Earth and the
change in size of the ice caps during the next 50 years.
A) Cross-sectional
B) Retrospective
C) Prospective
Answer: C
13) Identify the type of observational study: cross-sectional, retrospective, or prospective.
Geneticists studying the biodiversity of roses collect data from reports classifying the number of
varieties during the past 30 years.
A) Cross-sectional
B) Retrospective
C) Prospective
Answer: B
14) In a cross-sectional study, data are ________.
A) observed, measured, and collected at one point of time
B) observed, measure, and collected over a period of time
C) collected from a past time period
D) collected in the future from groups that share common factors
Answer: A
15) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
Biologists studying the pH level of state waterways obtain a sample of streams from a randomly
generated list by selecting every 5th stream on the list.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: A
16) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
To conduct a survey of the interest of U.S. citizens in Yellowstone National Park, a list of zipcodes is
compiled. All citizens in 50 different zipcodes are selected to be mailed a survey.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: D
17) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
To obtain a sample of diabetics, a graduate student contacts nearby hospitals for a list of names.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: B
18) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
Medical researchers following living organ donors classify donors according to whether they donated
a kidney, a portion of the liver, a portion of the lung, bone marrow, or blood. The general health of
200 donors from each category is monitored for five years.
A) Systematic
B) Convenience
C) Stratified
D) Cluster
Answer: C
19) To assess the variation in volume (in cubic centimeters) of different manufacturers' pre-filled
hormone injections, reproductive biologists select every 50th syringe beginning at a random moment.
Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample?
A) Yes; yes
B) Yes; no
C) No; yes
D) No; no
Answer: B
20) To monitor the population of Herring in Manchester, New Hampshire, fisheries biologists catch
samples of the fish in a river at various locations determined by a computer randomization program.
Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample?
A) Yes; yes
B) Yes; no
C) No; yes
D) No; no
Answer: A
Exam C
1) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
Park rangers identified the average (mean) number of reported bear sightings in all 32 state parks.
Answer: Parameter
2) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
A sample of patients had kidney transplants that lasted an average (mean) of 15 years.
Answer: Statistic
3) Determine whether the given values are from a discrete or a continuous data set.
The mean number of times that a sample of 50 adults have visited their dentist is 2.3 times.
Answer: Discrete
4) Determine whether the given values are from a discrete or a continuous data set.
The number of caterpillars from a sample of 55 milkweed plants is 185.
Answer: Discrete
5) Determine which of the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) is most
appropriate.
Doctors measure the weights (in pounds) of diabetic patients.
Answer: Ratio
6) Determine which of the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) is most
appropriate.
Marine Biologists classify turtles in the state of Florida using 5 different species: Loggerhead, Green
Turtle, Leatherback, Hawk's Bill, and Kemp's Ridley.
Answer: Nominal
7) Determine which of the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) is most
appropriate.
The cholesterol level for patients at a hospital is noted as optimal, borderline high, and high.
Answer: Ordinal
8) Determine which of the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) is most
appropriate.
Biologists measure the water temperature of Lake Okeechobee
Answer: Interval
9) Identify the sample.
A graduate student conducts a research study on undergraduate student nutrition. She begins with a
survey to 250 randomly selected undergraduate students from five randomly selected U.S.
universities.
Answer: 250 randomly selected undergraduate students from five randomly selected U.S. universities
10) Identify the population.
A researcher randomly selects 40 male prairie chickens at the Crane Meadows Nature Center in
Nebraska to study their mating rituals.
Answer: All the male prairie chickens at the Crane Meadows Nature Center in Nebraska
11) Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment.
A doctor gives a new medication to half of his patients with the flu and a placebo to the other half of
his patients with the flu.
Answer: Experiment
12) Would an observational study or an experiment be more appropriate to investigate the effects on
humans of a substance known to be toxic? Explain.
Answer: Observation
13) Would an observational study or an experiment be more appropriate for investigating the effects on
fertilizer on plant growth? Explain.
Answer: Experiment
14) Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment.
Felines with diabetes are randomly divided into three treatment groups (oral insulin, injected insulin,
and a control group) to compare differences in glucose levels.
Answer: Experiment
15) Identify the type of observational study: cross-sectional, retrospective, or prospective.
A researcher from the county school system is studying the effects of an intervention on the growth
mindset on school performance. He plans to follow the children who participated in this intervention
for the next 5 years to see if performance differs for those who participated from those who didn't.
Answer: Prospective
16) Identify the type of observational study: cross-sectional, retrospective, or prospective.
Scientists studying pelican injuries due to fishing line entanglement collect data from reports
measuring the number of injured pelicans over the past 12 years.
Answer: Retrospective
17) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
A county water quality control officer obtains a list of all residential addresses in the county and
constructs a sample of homes to monitor by selecting every 200th home on the list.
Answer: Systematic
18) Explain the difference between stratified and cluster sampling.
Answer: In both cluster sampling and stratified sampling, sub-groups (clusters or strata) are formed.
However, in stratified sampling, all strata are used and a sample is selected from each strata.
In cluster sampling, a sample of the clusters is first selected, then all members of those
clusters are selected.
19) Determine the type of sampling used: systematic, convenience, stratified, or cluster.
To obtain a sample of females with rotator cuff injuries, a researcher asks people she sees at her gym
whether they have had such an injury.
Answer: Convenience
20) To assess the variation in measurement (in mL) of pre-filled vials containing Albuterol,
manufacturers select every 100th vial beginning at a random moment. Does this sampling plan result
in a random sample? Simple random sample?
Answer: Yes; no
Chapter 2 Exam A
Name
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Select the choice that best answers the problem.
Use the frequency distribution to answer the first four questions. A sample of 80 juvenile salmon is grouped into
the resulting frequency distribution based on their weights.
Weight (in grams) Frequency
100-149 15
150-199 10
200-249 30
250-299 25
1) The distribution of the histogram for the weights of the juvenile salmon appears:
A) Normal B) Skewed left C) Uniform D) Skewed right
2) If a relative frequency distribution were constructed for the weights of the salmon, what would
be the relative frequency for the class weighing 150-199 grams?
A) 12.5% B) 31.25% C) 18.75% D) 37.5%
3) If a cumulative frequency distribution were constructed for the weights of the salmon, what
would be the cumulative frequency for the class weighing less than 200 grams?
A) 15 B) 25 C) 55 D) 80
4) If a pie chart were constructed for the weights of the salmon, what would be the measure of the
central angle for the class weighing 200-249 grams?
A) 67.5° B) 112.5° C) 45° D) 135°
12
1)____________
2)____________
3)____________
4)____________
5)
Which choice displays the best graphic display of the amount of nitrous oxide (NO) explained
by the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in million metric tons over a ten year
period in the United States? The data set is below:
CO
5638 5708 5893 5807 5881 5939 6024 6032 5946 6022
NO
351 349 345 339 335 335 362 371 376 384
A)
Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) B) Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Emissions in the U.S. over Ten Years
Emissions in the U.S. over Ten Years
Emission in Million
Metric Tons
5000
5500
6000
6500
13579
CO NO
Year
C)
Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) D) Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Emissions in the U.S. over Ten Years
Emissions in the U.S. over Ten Years
5600
5700
5800
5900
6000
6100
320 340 360 380 400
CO Emission in Million
Metric Tons
NO Emission in Million
Metric Tons
NO Emission in Million Metric Tons
320
340
360
380
400
5600 5800 6000 6200
CO Emission in Million Metric Tons
5)____________
6) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a
relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged
between 25 and 40 years. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number.
Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25-40 had a systolic blood pressure reading
between 110 and 119 mm Hg inclusive?
Systolic Blood Pressure for People Aged 25 – 40 Years
A) 0.35% B) 3.5% C) 30% D) 35%
7) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a
relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged
between 25 and 40 years. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number.
Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25-40 had a systolic blood pressure reading
between 110 and 139 mm Hg inclusive?
Systolic Blood Pressure for People Aged 25 – 40 Years
A) 75% B) 89% C) 59% D) 39%
14
6)____________
7)____________
8) A researcher records the number of new loggerhead turtle nests she locates each day. The data
are as follows.
10 11 8 14 7 10 10 11 8 7
Which of these choices displays the correct dotplot?
9) The following data show the number of patients seen by a doctor in a day for twelve days.
46 65 55 43 51 48 57 30 43 49 32 56
Which of these choices displays the correct stemplot?
A) B)
3
0
2
3 0 2
4
3 3 6 8
9
4 3689
5
1 5 6
7
4 13567
6
5
6 5
15
8)____________
9)____________
10) The scatterplot below displays the amount of nitrous oxide (NO) explained by the amount of
carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in million metric tons over a ten year period in the United
States. Select the choice that best describes any relationship between the variables.
A) There is a negative linear association between NO and CO.
B) There is a positive linear association between NO and CO.
C) Overall, there is no noticeable relationship between NO and CO.
D) NO can be explained by CO.
NO Emission in Million Metric Tons
390
380
370
360
350
340
330
Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emissions
in the U.S. for Ten Years
5600 5650 5700 5750 5800 5850 5900 5950 6000 6050 6100
CO Emission in Million Metric Tons
11) The following frequency distribution represents the age at which Alzheimer’s was first
diagnosed. Find the class midpoint for the interval 70-79.
Age Number of Diagnoses
50-59 2
60-69 4
70-79 6
80-89 15
90-99 5
A) 75.0 years B) 70.5 years C) 74.5 years D) 79.5 years
16
10)___________
11)___________
12) The histogram below represents the number of digital thermometers per household for a
sample of U.S. households. What is the sample size?
Number of Digital Thermometers Per U.S. Household
A) 100 households B) 5 households
C) 50 households D) 90 households
13) The weights (in pounds) of 22 members of the junior varsity football team are listed below.
144 152 142 151 160 152 131 164 141 153 140
144 175 156 147 133 172 159 135 159 148 171
Which of these choices displays the correct stemplot?
A)
B)
13
1 3
5
13 135
14
0 1 2 4 4 7
8
14 1223699
15
1 2 2 3 6 9
9
15 0124478
16
0
4
16 0 4
17
1 2
5
17 125
14) The two key parts of a regression equation involve the ____________ and the
y-____________.
A) slope; intercept
B) asymptote; intercept
C) slope; axis
D) asymptote; axis
15) Analysis of the data from 25 mothers indicates that an infant’s birth weight (g), y, can be
estimated by a mother’s weight (kg), x, using the regression equation
31 1501.yx=+
For
every _______ kg increase in a mother’s weight, the infant’s birth weight increases by
_________ g.
A) 31; 1501 B) 1; 31 C) 31; 1 D) 1501; 31
17
12)___________
13)___________
14)___________
15)___________
16) Analysis of the data from 25 mothers indicates that an infant’s birth weight (g), y, can be
estimated by a mother’s weight (kg), x, using the regression equation
31 1501.yx=+
If a
mother’s weight is 70 kg, the infant’s birth weight can be estimated as _________ g.
A) 48,701 B) 1718 C) 46 D) 3671
17) Excessive drinking and the episodes of throat cancer have a high correlation, but it does not
prove _________.
A) correlation B) causation C) exponentiation D) a linear relationship
18) The frequency distribution below summarizes employee years of service for a regional
hospital. Determine the width of each class.
Years of
Service
Frequency
1-5 5
6-10 20
11-15 25
16-20 10
21-25 5
26-30 3
A) 5 years B) 6 years C) 4 years D) 10 years
19) The frequency distribution below summarizes employee years of service for a regional
hospital. Determine the class boundary(ies) for the class 11 - 15.
Years of
Service
Frequency
1-5 5
6-10 20
11-15 25
16-20 10
21-25 5
26-30 3
A) 25 years B) 11 and 15 years
C) 10.5 and 15.5 years D) 10 and 16 years
20) A quality control manager wants to monitor the production of its pills to be sure that the mean
amount of medication does not change over time. Which of the following graphs is most
helpful for that purpose
A) Time-series graph B) Pareto chart
C) Pie chart D) Histogram
18
16)___________
17)___________
18)___________
19)___________
20)___________
Answer Key
Testname: CHAPTER 2 EXAM A
1) B
2) A
3) B
4) D
5) D
6) D
7) A
8) A
9) A
10) C
11) C
12) A
13) A
14) A
15) B
16) D
17) B
18) A
19) C
20) A
19
Chapter 2 Exam B
Name
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Select the choice that best answers the problem.
Use the frequency distribution to answer the next eight questions. A sample of 272 log jams found in river
channels in the Northwest U.S. is grouped into the resulting frequency distribution based on the width of the
channel in which the log jams were found.
Width of Channel Frequency of Log Jams
0-4m 103
5-9m 82
10-14m 49
15-19m 16
20-24m 16
25-29m 6
1) The distribution of the histogram for the width of the channels appears ______________.
A) Normal B) Skewed left
C) Uniform D) Skewed right
2) If a relative frequency distribution were constructed for the width of the channels, what would
be the relative frequency for the class with a width of 20-24m?
A) 5.9% B) 18% C) 2.2% D) 30.1%
3) If a cumulative frequency distribution were constructed for the width of the channels, what
would be the cumulative frequency for the class width less than 10m?
A) 103 B) 234 C) 185 D) 250
4) If a pie chart were constructed for the width of the channels, what would be the measure of the
central angle for the class width 10-14m?
A) 21.2° B) 136.3° C) 108.5° D) 64.9°
5) The histogram below represents the number of digital thermometers per household for a sample
of U.S. households. What is the sample size?
Number of Digital Thermometers Per U.S. Household
A) 5 B) 50 C) 90 D) 100
20
1)____________
2)____________
3)____________
4)____________
5)____________
6)
The following data consists of the weights (in pounds) of 15 randomly selected women and the
weights of 15 randomly selected men. Which of these choices displays the correct back-toback
stemplot?
Women:
128 150 118 166 142
122
137
110
175
152
145
126
139
111
170
Men:
140 153 199 186 169
136
176
162
196
155
173
190
141
166
153
A) B)
Men
6
1
0
5 3
3
9 6
2
6
3
6
9 6
0
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Women
0 1
8
2 6
8
7
9
2
5
0
2
6
0
5
7) According to USA Today, the largest categories of sports equipment sales are as follows: fishing
($2.0 billion); firearms and hunting ($3.1 billion); camping ($1.7 billion); and golf ($2.5
billion). What type of graph would depict these different categories and their relative amounts
the best?
A) A pie chart B) A bar chart C) A column chart D) A Pareto chart
8) The frequency distribution below summarizes the home sale prices in the city of Summerhill for
the month of June. Determine the width of each class.
Sale Price
(in thousand $) Frequency
80.0 - 110.9 2
111.0 - 141.9 5
142.0 – 172.9 7
173.0 – 203.9 10
204.0 – 234.9 3
235.0 – 265.9 1
A) 61 B) 31 C) 28 D) 30
Men Women
6
1 0
5 3 3
9 6 2
6 3
9 6
9 6
21
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
0 1
2 6 8
7
9
2
5
0 2
4
6
0
5
6)____________
7)____________
8)____________
9) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a
relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged
between 25 and 40 years. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number.
Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25 -40 had a systolic blood pressure
reading between 110 and 139 mm Hg inclusive?
Systolic Blood Pressure for People Aged 25 – 40 Years
A) 59% B) 39% C) 89% D) 75%
10)
The following frequency distribution d e p i c t s the scores on a math test. Find the class
midpoint
of scores for the interval 95-99.
Scores
Number o
f Students
75-79
2
80-84
4
85-89
6
90-94
15
95-99
5
A) 97.5 B) 97.0 C) 96.5 D) 98.0
22
9)____________
10)___________
11) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a
relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged
between 25 and 40 years. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number.
Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25 -40 had a systolic blood pressure
reading between 110 and 119 mm Hg inclusive?
Systolic Blood Pressure for People Aged 25 – 40 Years
A) 35% B) 0.35% C) 3.5% D) 30%
12) The Kappa Iota Sigma Fraternity polled its members on the weekend party theme. The vote
was as follows: six for toga, four for hayride, eight for luau, and two for masquerade. Which
of these choices displays the correct Pareto chart?
23
11)___________
12)___________
13) The following data show the number of patients seen by a doctor in a day for 12 days.
46 65 55 43 51 48 57 30 43 49 32 56
Which of these choices displays the correct stemplot?
A)
B)
3
0
2
3 0 2
4
3 3 6 8
9
4 3689
5
1 5 6
7
4 13567
6
5
6 5
14) The following frequency distribution displays the scores on a math test. Find the class
boundaries of scores interval 40-59.
Scores
Number o
f students
50-59
2
60-69
4
70-79
6
80-89
15
90-99
5
A) 49.5, 59.5 B) 50.5, 59.5 C) 49.5, 58.5 D) 50.5, 58.5
15) The following data represents the age at which a sample of patients had their first dental
implant.
38 39 37 37 44 38 41 38 39 35 42 39 43 37 41
Which of these choices displays the correct dotplot?
24
13)___________
14)___________
15)___________
16) A pharmaceutical company is always trying to create new flavors of children’s cough medicine.
They are market testing three kinds to find out which one has the best chance of being
consumed. They give small samples of each to 20 children at a pediatrician’s office. Four tasters
preferred the Strawberry Cream, 12 preferred Choco-Nuts, and four loved the Orange Mint.
Construct a Pareto chart to represent these preferences. Choose the vertical scale so that the
relative frequencies are represented.
25
16)___________
17) The frequency distribution below summarizes the home sale prices in the city of Summerhill
for the month of June. Determine the class midpoint (in thousand $) for the class 235.0 -265.9.
Sale Price ( in thousand
$) Frequency
80.0 - 110.9
2
111.0 - 141.9
5
142.0 - 172.9
7
173.0 - 203.9
10
204.0 - 234.9
3
235.0 - 265.9
1
A) 250.4 B) 250.55 C) 250.45 D) 250.5
18) Identify the cumulative frequency distribution that corresponds to the given frequency
distribution.
Age at Death Frequency
0-29 4
30-59 16
60-89 60
90-119 20
A)
B)
Age at Death
Cumulative
Frequency
Age at Death
Less than 30 0.04 Less than 30 4
Less than 60 0.20 Less than 60 20
Less than 90 0.80 Less than 90 80
Less than 120 1.00 Less than 120 100
C)
D)
Age at Death
Cumulative
Frequency
Age at Death
0-29 4 Less than 30 100
30-59 20 Less than 60 80
60-89 80 Less than 90 82
90-119 100 Less than 120 4
19) The linear __________ coefficient denoted by r measures the __________ of the linear
association between two variables.
A) correlation; strength
B) probability; likelihood
C) exponential; exponent
D) squares; weakness
20) Smoking and the episodes of lung cancer have a high correlation, but it does not prove
_________.
A) causation B) correlation C) exponentiation D) a linear relationship
26
Cumulative
Frequency
Cumulative
Frequency
17)___________
18)___________
19)___________
20)___________
Answer Key
Testname: CHAPTER 2 EXAM B
1) D
2) A
3) C
4) D
5) D
6) A
7) D
8) B
9) D
10) B
11) A
12) A
13) A
14) A
15) D
16) A
17) C
18) B
19) A
20) A
27
Chapter 2 Exam C
Name
SHORT ANSWER. Using the following information, write the word, phrase, or value that best answers the
problem.
1) A study of physical fitness tests for 12 randomly selected Pre-Medical students measured their
exercise capacity (in minutes). The following data resulted:
34 19 33 30 43 36
32 41 31 31 37 18
Construct a stem and leaf plot of the students' exercise capacity.
Use the frequency distribution to answer the next six questions. A sample of 80 juvenile salmon is grouped into the
resulting frequency distribution based on their weights.
Weight (in grams) Frequency
100-149 15
150-199 10
200-249 30
250-299 25
2) Identify the class width, the class midpoints, and the class boundaries for the class 150 – 199.
3) Construct a corresponding histogram for the weights of the juvenile salmon.
4) Describe the shape of the distribution of the histogram for the weights of the juvenile salmon.
5) If a relative frequency distribution were constructed for the weights of the salmon, what would
be the relative frequency for the class weighing 200-249 grams?
6) If a cumulative frequency distribution were constructed for the weights of the salmon, what
would be the cumulative frequency for the class weighing less than 250 grams?
7) If a pie chart were constructed for the weights of the salmon, what would be the measure of the
central angle for the class weighing 150-199 grams?
8) A bar chart and a Pareto chart both use bars to show frequencies of categories of categorical
data. What characteristic distinguishes a Pareto chart from a bar chart and how does that
characteristic help us in understanding the data?
9) A medical school performed a study to find the main causes leading to its students
dropping out of school. Thirty cases were analyzed, and a primary cause was assigned to
each case. The causes included unexcused absences (U), illness (I), family problems (F), and
other causes (O). The results for the thirty cases are listed below:
U U U I F O O U I F
F O U I I F I I O U
I F F U U I I O F U
Construct a table summarizing the frequency distribution of the primary causes leading to
student dropout.
28
1)____________
2)____________
3)____________
4)____________
5)____________
6)____________
7)____________
8)____________
9)____________
10) Use the high closing values of Statstar Inc. stock from the years 2005 - 2016 to construct a
time-series graph. (Let x = 0 represent 2005 and so on.) Identify a trend.
Year High Year High
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
48
53
47
55
58
61
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
62
60
68
42
51
78
11) Describe at least two advantages to using stemplots rather than frequency distributions.
12) The following data set represents the systolic blood pressure (in mm Hg) for 24 adults as
measured at their annual physical.
105 125 110 98 102 115 110 123 118 101 95 128
110 105 122 107 118 107 117 125 116 110 101 107
Construct a frequency distribution with 4 classes, a class width of 2 hours, and a lower limit
of 100 for class 1.
13) The graph below shows the number of car accidents occurring in one city in each of the
years 2011 through 2016. The number of accidents dropped in 2013 after a new speed limit
was imposed. Does the graph distort the data? How would you redesign the graph to be less
misleading?
Number of Car Accidents for 2011 – 2016
14) Upon entering a medical exam, 26 patients were asked their ages. The results are shown
below. Construct a histogram to represent the data (with 5 classes beginning with a lower
class limit of 19.5 and a class width of 10). What is the approximate age at the center?
43 56
28
63 67 66 52 48 37 51 40 60 62
66 45 21 35 49 32 53 61 53 69 31 48 59
15) Suppose that a data set has a minimum value of 24 and a maximum of 79 and that you
want 5 classes. Explain how to find the class width for this frequency table. What happens if
you mistakenly use a class width of 11 instead of 12?
29
10)___________
11)___________
12)___________
13)___________
14)___________
15)___________
16) Describe the differences between a histogram and a stemplot and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
17) The frequency table below shows the amount of weight loss during the first month of a
diet program for a group of men. Construct a frequency polygon. Applying a loose
interpretation of the requirements for a normal distribution, do the pounds of weight loss
appear to be normally distributed? Why or why not?
Weight (lb) Frequency
5-7
2
8-10
9
11-13
18
14-16
13
17-19
4
20-22
1
18) Define the difference between a relative frequency distribution and a cumulative frequency
distribution.
19) Graphs should be constructed in a way that is fair and objective. A common deceptive graph
alters the axes of the graph in what way?
20) Describe how a data point labeled as an outlier can affect the analysis of a data set in a
frequency distribution or histogram.
30
16)___________
17)___________
18)___________
19)___________
20)___________
Answer Key
Testname: CHAPTER 2 EXAM C
1)
2
1 8 9
3 0 1 1 23467
4 1 3
2) class width = 50; midpoints = 124.5,174.5, 224.5, 274.5 class boundaries = 99.5,149.5,199.5, 249.5, 299.5
3) Notes: midpoints of classes were used; there should not be gaps between the bars.
4) Slightly skewed left.
5) 0.375
6) 55
7) 45
8) In a Pareto chart, the bars are arranged in descending order according to frequencies. The Pareto chart helps us
understand data by drawing attention to the categories which have the highest frequencies.
9)
Cause
Frequency
U
9
I
9
F
7
O
5
10) Trend: Answers will vary. Possible answer: Except for a drop in high closing value in 2007, there was a
steady rise through 2013, after which there was a sharp drop in 2014 followed by increases through 2016.
High Closing Values of Statstar Inc.
Years Since 2005
31
11) Answers will vary. Possible answer: The shape of a distribution can readily be seen. The plot can be drawn
quicker, since class width need not be calculated.
12)
Charges $ Frequency
100 2
110 12
120 5
130 5
13) The graph distorts the data because the vertical scale starts at 60 rather than 0, giving the impression of a
large difference in the number of accidents, when actually the number of accidents only varies from 90 to
120. To make
the graph less misleading, change the vertical scale so that it begins at 0 and increases in
increments of
20.
14) The approximate age at the center is 50 years.
15)
Since the range is
79 24 55−=
, and 55 divided by 5 equals 11, a whole number, the class width has to be
widened from 11 to 12. If the class width was 11 data values equal to 79 would not be included in the
frequency distribution.
16) Answers will vary. A histogram organizes the data into classes that have widths determined by the designer.
Once a histogram has been created, the original data values can no longer be determined. An advantage is
that large amounts of data can be organized into a relatively small space. For stemplots, the groups are
determined by place value. The original data values are still accessible from stemplots. Stemplots can be
prohibitively large for large sets of data.
17) Amount of Weight Loss Among Males During First Month
18) A relative frequency distribution displays the proportion or percentage of the total. The sum of the percentages is
100%. Another variation of a frequency distribution is a cumulative frequency distribution in which the frequency
for each class is the sum of the frequencies for that class and all previous classes
19) A common deceptive graph involves using a vertical scale that starts at some value greater than zero to exaggerate
differences between groups.
20) An outlier is defined as a data point far away from the other data points. An outlier affects the calculation of the
mean of a data set and will pull the mean towards the outlier. In addition, an outlier will extend the range of the data
set, causing most of the bin intervals to be bunched together along with a large range of bins with no data until the
outlier bin is reached. This makes the analysis more difficult if the outlier is included making it more difficult to see
the behavior of the rest of the data points.

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