The final exam includes content from weeks 1-8. The deadline for this exam is Saturday evening at 11:50 pm. Week 8 closes on Saturday not Sunday. Week 7 : renal and urological disorders • Questions can include pathophysiology, health assessment (normal and abnormal), and pharmacologic treatment • Review required readings, course lectures, case study and learning activity. Fluid and electrolyte balance- processes in the kidney • Hormones controls reabsorption of fluid and electrolytes o Antidiuretic hormone  From posterior pituitary; controls reabsorption of water by altering permeability of distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct o Aldosterone  Secreted by adrenal cortex; controls sodium reabsorption and water by exchanging Na ions for K or hydrogen ions in distal convoluted tubule o Atrial natriuretic hormone  From heart; 3rd hormone controlling fluid balance by reducing Na and fluid reabsorption in kidneys Renal circulation process Laboratory testing- purpose and interpretation ; Age related urinary changes ; Conditions/diagnoses associated with urine color changes Diagnostic test • Urinalysis o Constituents and characteristics of urine may vary w/ dietary intake, drugs, and care w/ which specimen is handled o Urine is normally: clear, straw colored and has mild color o Urine pH is 4.5-8.0 o Appearance  Cloudy indicate presence of large amounts of protein, blood cells or bacteria and pus  Dark color indicate hematuria (blood), excessive bilirubin content or highly concentrated urine  Unpleasant or unusual odor indicate infection or result from certain dietary components or medications o Abnormal constituents (present in significant quantities)  Blood (hematuria) • small (microscopic) amounts of blood indicates infection, inflammation, or tumors in urinary tract • large numbers of RBC (gross hematuria) indicates increased glomerular permeability or hemorrhage in tract  protein (proteinuria, albuminuria) • indicates leakage of albumin or mixed plasma proteins into filtrate d/t inflammation and increased glomerular permeability  bacteria (bacteriuria) and pus (pyuria) • indicates infection in urinary tract  urinary casts (microscopic sized molds of tubules, consisting of one or more cells (bacteria, protein, and so on)) indicates inflammation of kidney tubules

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