A child is admitted to the hospital for whooping cough. The plan of care indicates that the nurse should assess the patient for signs of airway obstruction. For which signs will the nurse assess the child? Cyanosis Skin pallor Apprehension in the child Increased temperature Increased restlessness Whooping cough is a respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Airway obstruction can occur due to the infection. Therefore, nurses are instructed to assess for signs of airway obstruction, including cyanosis, apprehension, and increased restlessness. The nurse should immediately report any of these signs. Pallor is seen in cases of shock, and an increased temperature indicates infection, not airway obstruction. p. 167 By what is sexual development during preschool years formed? Strong attachments to the same­sex friends Strong attachments to the opposite­sex friends Strong attachment to the same­sex parent and identification with the opposite­sex parent Strong attachment to the opposite­sex parent and identification with the same­sex parent Sexual development during the preschool years is formed by a strong attachment to the opposite­sex parent and identification with the same­sex parent. Strong attachments to opposite­sex or same­sex friends are not characteristic of sexual development during the preschool years. Strong attachment to the same­sex parent tends to occur in the toddler and infant years. STUDY TIP: Develop a realistic plan of study. Do not set rigid, unrealistic goals. p. 382 According to Freud, middle childhood is associated with an increase in relationships with: Older children Same­sex peers Younger children Opposite­sex peers According to Freud, middle childhood is associated with an increase in relationships with same­sex peers. The incidence of opposite­sex peer relationships increases during the adolescent years. Relationships with younger children are not common during middle childhood; nor are relationships with older children. p. 430 Strict isolation is required for a child who is hospitalized with which infectious disease? Mumps Chickenpox Exanthema subitum (roseola) Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease) Chickenpox is communicable through direct contact, droplet spread, and contaminated objects. The child hospitalized for chickenpox should therefore be strictly isolated. Mumps is transmitted by way of direct contact with saliva of an infected person and is most communicable before the onset of swelling. The transmission and cause of exanthema subitum (roseola) are unknown. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease) is communicable before the onset of symptoms. p. 163 A nurse is caring for a macrosomic child with impaired feeding ability. How does the nurse provide nutrition to the child? By bottle feeding By gavage feeding By intravenous infusion By nonnutritive sucking Macrosomia is most commonly seen in infants of diabetic mothers. These infants are highly prone to hypoglycemic conditions due to impaired beta cell activity. This leads to the development of congenital hyperinulinism, which may lead to hypoglycemia. Such infants have several birth complications and have reduced sucking reflex. Intravenous infusions are the preferred choice for providing nutrition for macrosomic infants who have impaired sucking abilities. Bottle feeding is practiced in infants with mild defective sucking reflex. Gavage feeding, practiced in infants with reduced sucking reflex, is not applicable in macrosomic newborns. Nonnutritive sucking is used for stimulating sucking reflex in gavage feeding. STUDY TIP: Focus your study time on the common health problems that nurses most frequently encounter. p. 283 A preschooler is admitted for treatment of acetylsalicylic acid poisoning. The nurse is ordered to administer activated charcoal to the patient. However, the preschooler refuses to take the activated charcoal slurry because of its black, muddy color. What is the most appropriate nursing action in this situation? Administer amyl nitrate to treat the poisoning. Avoid administering activated charcoal slurry. Serve the slurry in an opaque container with a cover. Mix activated charcoal with cola instead of water. The child refuses to take activated charcoal slurry because of its black, muddy color; therefore, the nurse should serve the slurry in an opaque container with a cover. This would help the child drink it more easily. Amyl nitrate should not be administered to the child because it is not an antidote for acetylsalicylic acid poisoning; it is an antidote for cyanide. Activated charcoal forms a complex and prevents the further absorption of acetylsalicylic acid. Therefore, it should not be avoided. The child refuses to take activated charcoal slurry due to its black mud color, not because of its taste. Therefore, mixing it with cola may not be helpful. Test­Taking Tip: Once you have decided on an answer, look at the stem again. Does your choice answer the question that was asked? If the question stem asks "why," be sure the response you have chosen is a reason. If the question stem is singular, then be sure the option is singular, and the same for plural stems and plural responses. Many times, checking to make sure that the choice makes sense in relation to the stem will reveal the correct answer.

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