APEA Qbank Questions and Answers
A transient ischemic attack is:
a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, without
acute infarction. Correctan infarction of the central nervous system tissue that may be silent or
symptomatic.the abrupt onset of motor or sensory deficits. Incorrectfocal or asymmetric weaknesses
caused by central and peripheral nerve damage.
TIA is now defined as “a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord,
or retinal ischemia, without acute infarction.” Ischemic stroke is “an infarction of central nervous system
tissue” that may be symptomatic or silent. The other terms are not related to the new definitions.
A patient is asked to visually follow a finger through the cardinal fields of gaze. Which cranial nerves are
III, IVIII, IV, VI CorrectV, VI, VII
Visually following a finger through the cardinal fields of gaze is one way to assess the oculomotor (CN III),
trochlear (CN IV) and abducens (CN VI) nerves. CN I is the olfactory nerve and assesses smell. CN II is the
optic nerve and assesses visual acuity. CN V is the trigeminal nerve and assesses both sensory and motor
Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, which may produce minor physical signs, thought
disturbances, or disturbed motor activity is:
dystonia. bradykinesia. tremor. seizure. Correct
A seizure is an uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain which may produce minor physical signs,
thought disturbances, or disturbed motor activity, or a combination of symptoms. Dystonia is a
neurological disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms and twisting of the limbs. Bradykinesia is
the term used to describe the impaired ability to adjust to one's body position. This symptom is noted in
patients who have Parkinson's disease. A rhythmic oscillatory movement of a body part resulting from
the contraction of opposing muscle groups is a tremor.
When evaluating the sensory system, testing the posterior columns tract would include assessing
position and vibration. Correctpain and temperature.deep touch. Incorrectdiscriminative sensations.
When evaluating the sensory system, testing the spinothalamic tracts would include assessing sensations
of pain and temperature. Assessing position and vibration evaluate the posterior columns. Light touch
assesses both the spinothalamic and posterior column tracts. To assess discriminative sensation, both
the spinothalamic and posterior columns tracts as well as the cortex would be assessed.
Physical exam of a well two-week-old infant reveals a little dimple with a small amount of hair just above
the sacral area. This could be:
an unusual finding but within normal limits. Incorrecthirsutism.Arnold -Chiari malformation. spina bifida
There are four types of spina bifida: occulta, closed neural tube defects, meningocele, and
myelomeningocele. Occulta is the mildest and most common form in which one or more vertebrae are
malformed. The name “occulta,” which means “hidden,” indicates that a layer of skin covers the
malformation, or opening in the vertebrae. This form of spina bifida, present in 10-20 percent of the
general population, rarely causes disability or symptoms. Closed neural tube defects are often
recognized early in life due to an abnormal tuft or clump of hair or a small dimple or birthmark on the
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