Acute Renal Injury (AKI) or Acute Renal Failure (ARF) LABS: Albumin: ​3.5-5 g/dL of total protein. → In AKI, ​ decreased levels ​ could mean severe burns, severe malnutrition, ​renal disorders. → In AKI, ​Increased levels ​could mean dehydration, severe vomiting, severe diarrhea. pH: ​7.35 - 7.45 → anything above ​ 7.45 ​is a ​base, ​ which in terms means alkalotic ​ (alkalosis) → anything below ​7.35 ​ is an ​ acid, ​ which in terms means acidotic ​ (acidosis) PaCo2: ​ ​35 - 45 mmHg → anything ​LESS ​ than ​35 ​ is a ​base, ​which in terms → represents respiratory level means alkalotic ​(alkalosis) → anything ​ABOVE ​45 is an ​acid, ​ which in terms means acidotic ​(acidosis) → < 35 mmHg = ​Hypocapnia → ​> 45 mmhG = ​Hypercapnia HCO3: ​ ​24 - 28 mEq/L → anything above ​28 ​is a ​ base, ​ which in terms → HCO3 represents metabolic means alkalotic ​ (alkalosis) → anything below ​24 ​ is an ​acid, ​ which in terms means acidotic ​(acidosis) PaO2: ​80 - 100 mmHg → < 80 mmHg = ​Hypoxemia → pressure of dissolved O2 in blood SaO2: ​97 - 100% → ​Hemoglobin saturation Base Excess: ​-3.0 to + 3.0 → indicator of buffering capacity Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): ​5-25mg → Decreased BUN ​: hypervolemia, malnutrition, liver disease, low-protein diet, & ​dialysis. → Increased BUN: ​ dehydration, ​prerenal failure, or renal failure

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